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Introduction to Chemistry

What is Chemistry?

Career Opportunities

Problem Solving Skills

Problem Solving in Chemistry

Practical Skills

Safety in the Laboratory

Scientific Method


Experimental Design

Writing Laboratory Reports

Plotting Points on a Graph

Drawing the Line of Best Fit

Predictions from Graphs (extrapolation & interpolation)

Accuracy and Precision

Experimental Errors

Maths for Chemistry Students

Representing Numbers

Significant Figures

Scientific Notation (exponential notation)

SI Units

SI Units Introduction

Temperature Unit Conversions

Mass Unit Conversions

Volume Unit Conversions

Length Unit Conversions

Energy Unit Conversions

Classification of Matter

Pure Substances and Mixtures

Density Calculations

Elements and Compounds


History of the Elements

Metals and Non-Metals

Chemical Reactions

Physical and Chemical Changes

Types of Chemical Reactions

Chemical Formula

Molecular Formula

Empirical and Molecular Formula

Empirical Formula Experiment: Magnesium Oxide

2-Dimensional (full display) Structural Formula

Condensed Structural Formula (semi-structural formula)

Skeletal Structural Formula

Also see Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

Also see Name and Formula (Introduction to Inorganic Compounds)

Also see Ligands and Complex Ions

Chemical Equations

Word Equations for Chemical Reactions

acid + metal word equations

acid + carbonate word equations

acid + base word equations

Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing Precipitation Reaction Equations

Stoichiometry (Chemical Calculations)

Relative Molecular Mass (Formula Weight)

Calculating Percentage (Percent) Composition

Definitions of a Mole

Mole-Number of Particle Calculations

Mass-Mole Calculations

Molar Gas Volume Calculations

Molar Concentration, Molarity of Solutions (mol L-1 or M)

(See also solutions for dilutions and other types of concentration)

Reaction Calculations: Mass and Moles

Limiting Reagents and Reactants in Excess


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Organic (carbon) Chemistry

IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Aliphatic Compounds (IUPAC Naming)

Introduction to IUPAC Naming for Organic Compounds

Introduction to Functional Groups

Homologous Series

Saturated and Unsaturated Organic Compounds

Hydrocarbon Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Alkanes

Branched-Chain Alkanes

Straight-Chain Alkenes

Straight-Chain Alkynes

Aldehyde Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Alkanals

Ketone Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Alkanones

Alcohol Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Alkanols

Branched-Chain Alkanols

Straight-Chain Alkanediols

Classification of Alkanols (alcohols)

Haloalkane (alkyl halide) Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

Classification of Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

Carboxylic acids Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Alkanoic Acids

Esters Nomenclature

Simple Esters

Nitrile Nomenclature


Amine Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamines

Amide Nomenclature

Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamides

Molecules with different functional groups

Naming Saturated Molecules with 2 Different Functional Groups

Organic Isomers (aliphatic compounds)

Structural Isomers

Types of Structural (Constitutional) Isomers

Structural Isomers of Alkanes

Structural Isomers of Alkenes

Structural Isomers of Haloalkanes


Cis-Trans (Geometric Isomers)

cis-trans (Geometric) Isomers of Alkenes

Optical Isomers

Chiral Centres and Chiral Molecules

Organic Reactions (aliphatic compounds)

Classification of Organic Reactions (introduction)

(i) Substitution and Addition Reactions

Halogenation of Hydrocarbons

Hydrohalogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Hydration of Alkenes to Alkanols (alcohols)

Substitution Reactions of Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

Alkanol and Hydrohalic Acids (HX)

(ii) Elimination Reactions

Dehydration of Alkanols (alcohols)

Synthesis, Isolation and Purification of Esters (Fischer Esterification)

Dehydrohalogenation of Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

(iii) Oxidation Reactions

Oxidation of Alkenes

Oxidation of Alkanols (alcohols)

Combustion of Hydrocarbons

Combustion of Alcohols (alkanols)

(iv) Reduction Reactions

Hydrogenation of Alkenes

(v) Polymerisation Reactions

Polymers and Polymerization

(a) Addition Polymerisation Reactions

Polyethene (polyethylene)

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)



Polypropene (polypropylene)

(b) Condensation Polymerisation Reactions


Polyamides (Nylons)

Organic Synthesis (aliphatic compounds)

Reaction Schemes for Organic Chemistry

Properties and Uses (aliphatic compounds)



Case Study: Ethene (ethylene)

Alkanols (alcohols)

Alkanals and Alkanones (aldehydes and ketones)

Alkanoic Acids (carboxylic acids)


Nitriles (alkanenitriles)

Aromatic Compounds

Benzene Structure and Properties

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Biochemistry (Biological Chemistry)


Carbohydrates (sugars)

Fatty Acids

Omega Fatty Acids

Lipids (fats and oils)

Amino Acids





Biochemical Reactions


Reducing and Non-reducing Sugars

Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates

Glycaemic Index (GI)

Acid Hydrolysis of Triglycerides

Acid Hydrolysis of Proteins

Applications of Biochemistry

Chemistry of Blood

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Inorganic (non-carbon) Chemistry

Periodic Table

History of the Periodic Table

Introduction to the Modern Periodic Table

Critical Elements

s,p,d,f Blocks of the Periodic Table

Trends in Electron Configuration

Trends in Ionization Energy

Trends in Atomic Radius

Trends in Electronegativity

Trends in Properties of Oxides

Trends in Group 1 (Group IA, alkali metals)

Trends in Group 2 (Group IIA, alkaline-earth metals)

Trends in Group 16 Hydrides

Trends in Group 17 (VIIA, halogens)

Trends in Period 2 (second period)

Trends in Period 3 (third period)

Introduction to Naming Inorganic Compounds

Inorganic Acid Names and Formulae

Name and Formula of Cations

Name and Formula of Anions

Naming Inorganic Salts (binary inorganic ionic compounds)

Writing Formula of Inorganic Salts (binary inorganic ionic compounds)

Naming Inorganic Non-metallic Binary Covalent Compounds

Molecular Formula of Inorganic Non-metallic Binary Covalent Compounds

Transition Metal Chemistry

Transition Metal Properties

Ligands and Complex Ions

Solid-State Chemistry

Silicates: Structure and Formula

Zeolites: Structure and Uses


X-ray Diffraction and Electron Density Maps

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Physical Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Atomic Structure

Brief History of Atomic Theory

Bohr Model of the Atom

Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Quantum Numbers

Number of Protons in an Atom
(Atomic Number, Z)

Mass Number (A)
(number of nucleons)

Number of Electrons in an Atom

Ground State Electronic Configuation
(Ground State Electron Configuration)

Evidence for Electron Configuration
from First Ionisation Energy

Electron Configuration: Periods 1 to 3 Atoms (shells)

Electron Configuration of Periods 1 to 3 Ions (shells)

Electron Configuration: Periods 1 to 3 Atoms (subshell)

Electron Configuration: Period 4 (subshell)

Orbital Diagrams

Isoelectronic Species



Relative Atomic Mass (estimated)

Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes, atomic weight)

Isotope Stability (introduction)

Mass Defect

Nuclear Binding Energy

Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Decay

Half-Life Definitions and Calculations

Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

Properties and Uses of Radiation and Radioisotopes

Uses of Carbon-14 for Dating

Uses of Radioisotopes in Smoke Detectors


Lewis Structures (electron dot diagrams)

Coordinate Covalent Bonds (dative bonds)

Shapes of Molecules (VSEPR theory)

Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

Molecule Polarity

Intramolecular Forces

Metallic Bonding

Ionic Bonding

Covalent Bonding

Intermolecular Forces
(and effects on melting point and solubility)

Gas Laws

Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes

Avogadro's Principle

Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)

Charles' Law

Combined Gas Equation

Ideal Gas Law

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

Graham's Laws of Effusion and Diffusion

Henry's Laws (gas solubility)

Thermochemistry (energy)

Introduction to thermochemical concepts

Enthalpy Change (ΔH) for Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions

Enthalpy Change Calculations (ΔH and stoichiometry)

Energy Profiles (energy diagrams)

Calculating Enthalpy Change of Reactions using tabulated data

Hess's Law (of Constant Heat Summation) Introduction

Bond Energy (enthalpy) and Heat of Reaction

Latent Heat (Latent Enthalpy)

Heat (Enthalpy) of Formation and Reaction

Calorimetry: Measuring Enthalpy Change of Reactions Experimentally

Heat Capacity Calculations (Cg & Cn)

Solution Calorimetry (cup calorimeter)

Heat of Reaction Introduction
(Enthalpy of Reaction)

Heat of Solution
(Enthalpy of Solution)

Heat of Neutralisation
(Enthalpy of Neutralization)

Heat of Combustion

Molar Heat of Combustion of Liquid Fuels
(Molar Enthalpy of Combustion of Liquid Fuels)

Heat of Combustion of Food
(Enthalpy of Combustion of Food)

Calorimetry (adiabatic, electrical)

Bomb Calorimeter and Solution Calorimeter

Applications of Thermochemistry

Fuel Definitions

Comparing Fuels



First Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Energy Conservation)

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Introduction to Entropy

Third Law of Thermodynamics and Standard Absolute Entropy Change Calculations (ΔS°)

Introduction to Spontaneous Reactions: enthalpy and entropy

Gibbs Free Energy (G): Definition and Spontaneity of Reactions

Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔGƒ°) Calculations

Gibbs Free Energy Change Calculations (ΔG° = ΔH° - TΔS°)

Effect of Temperature on Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity of Reactions

Chemical Kinetics (reaction rates)

Rate of Reaction

Kinetic Energy (Maxwell-Boltzman) Distribution

Using Rate Law

Determining Rate Law



Oxidation and Reduction Concepts

Oxidation Numbers (States)

Writing half-equations (for simple ions)

Writing half-equations for aqueous solutions (acidic conditions)

Writing half-equations for aqueous solutions (basic conditions)

Redox Reaction Concepts

Writing Redox Equations

Eo: oxidation & reduction

Eo calculations: redox reactions

Spontaneous vs Non-spontaneous Redox Reactions

Electrolyte Strength

Quantity of Electricity (charge) Calculations

Electrical Energy Calculations (E = Q × V)

Applications: Galvanic (Voltaic Cells)

Displacement Reactions (activity series)

Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells

Galvanic Cell Diagrams



Lead-Acid Batteries

Fuel Cells

Electrolytic Cells

Electrolytic Cell Concepts

Electrolysis of Molten Salts

Electrolysis of Aqueous Salt Solutions

Electroplating Concepts

Faraday Laws of Electrolysis

also see Metallurgy and Industrial Chemistry sections below

Advanced Electrochemistry

Nernst Equation


Equilbrium Theory

Reversible and Irreversible Changes

Introduction to Chemical Equilibrium

Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions at Equilibrium

Equilibrium Concepts

Le Chatelier's Principle

Mass-Action Expression (Q)

Law of Chemical Equilibrium

Equilibrium Constants (K)

R.I.C.E. (I.C.E.) Tables and K Calculations

K and Extent of Reaction

K and Temperature

K and Reverse Reactions

K and Stoichiometry

Ion Product for Water (Kw)

Acid Dissociation Constants (Ka)

Base Dissociation Constants (Kb)

pK (pKw, pKa, pKb)

Solubility Products (Ksp)

KP and Kc

Q vs K : predicting direction of reaction

Equilibrium Applications: Biological

Chemistry of Blood

Equilibrium Applications: Industrial

Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)

Manufacture and Uses of Sulfuric Acid

Equilibrium Applications: Solubility

Precipitation Reaction Equations

Solubility Rules (qualitative)

Solubility Table (table of solubilities g/100 mL)

Solubility Curves (g/100 g)

Solubility and Le Chatelier's Principle

Solubility Products (Ksp)

Acids and Bases (application of equilibrium)

Acid and Base Concepts

Properties of Acids and Bases

Definitions and Properties of Acids and Bases

Arrhenius Theory of Acids and Bases (definitions)

Brønsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases (definitions)

Brønsted-Lowry Proton Transfer Reactions

pH Scale Concepts

pH Calculations for acids

[H+] Calculations for acids

pOH Concepts

pOH Calculations for bases

[OH-] Calculations for bases

Strength of Acids

pH of Strong Acids

Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Acids

Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Acids

pOH of Strong Acids

Weak Acids (Ka)

Strength of Bases

pOH of Strong Bases

Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Bases

pH of Strong Bases

Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Bases

Weak Bases (Kb)

Polyprotic Weak Acid Concepts

pH of a Polyprotic Strong Acid (Sulfuric Acid)

pH of Strong Acids After Dilution

pH of Weak Acids After Dilution

pH of Strong Bases After Dilution

pH After Mixing Weak Acids (introduction)

Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases

Hydrolysis of Acids and Bases (Ka × Kb = Kw)

Acid and Base Reactions

Neutralisation Reactions

Acidic, Basic, Neutral Aqueous Solutions

pH of Aqueous Solutions After Mixing Strong Acid and Strong Base

pH of Aqueous Solutions After Mixing Weak Acid and Strong Base

pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions (introduction)

Calculating pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions

Acid and Base Applications

Buffer Concepts

see also Acid-Base Titrations, Volumetric Analysis, below


Concepts of Solutions

Solutions Concepts

Water as a Solvent

Calculating Concentration of Solutions

(i) per quantity of solution

(a) volume of solution

Mass Concentration (w/v, m/v)

Mass/Volume Percentage (%w/v %m/v)

Parts per Million (ppm)

Molarity, Molar Concentration (mol L-1 or M)

Dilution Calculations

Dilution Factor

Converting Between Concentration Units

(b) mass of solution

Mass Fraction and Mass Percent (%w/w, %m/m)

(c) moles of solution

Mole Fraction and Mole Percent

(ii) per quantity of solvent

(a) volume of solvent

Weight Ratio Percentage

(b) moles of solvent


Properties of Solutions

Colligative Properties of Solutions Introduction

Raoult's Law

Freezing Point Depression & Boiling Point Elevation

Osmotic Pressure

Surface Chemistry

Surface Tension


Capillary Action

Soaps and Saponification

Synthetic Detergents

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Analytical Chemistry

Gas Tests

Gas Preparation and Tests

Gravimetric Analysis

Gravimetric Analysis

Sulfate in Lawn Fertiliser

Chloride in Seawater

(See also applications of equilibrium: solubility)

Volumetric Analysis (Titrations)

Introduction to Volumetric Analysis Concepts

Standard Solutions

Titration Techniques

Volumetric Analysis: Acids and Bases Concepts

Acid-Base Indicators

Introduction to Acid-Base Indicators: Colour and pH

Indicator End Point (equilibrium application)

Choosing Indicators for Acid-Base Titrations

Acid - Base Titrations (direct titrations)

Acid Base Titration Calculations

Acid Base Titration Curves (graphs)

Strong Monoprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations

Strong Diprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations

Weak Monoprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations

Acetic Acid Concentration in Vinegar by Direct Titration

Back Titrations (indirect titrations)

Back Titration Calculations

Conductometric Titrations

Acid-Base Conductometric Titrations

Precipitation Conductometric Titrations

REDOX Titrations

REDOX Titration Calculations

Ethanol REDOX Titrations (Wine or Beer Analysis)

Hypochlorite REDOX Titrations (Bleach Analysis)

Complexometric Titrations

Total Hardness in Hard Water

Calcium Ion Concentration in Hard Water

Precipitation Titrations

Precipitation Titration (argentimetric titration)

Instrumental Techniques for Chemical Analysis


Chromatography Overview

Paper Chromatography

Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Gas Chromatography (GC or GLC)

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)




Spectroscopy Overview

(i) Emission Spectroscopy

Flame Tests

Emission Spectroscopy (Atomic Spectroscopy)

Hydrogen Emission Spectrum

(ii) Absorption Spectroscopy

Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)


UV-Visible Spectroscopy (spectrophotometric analysis)

Spectroscopy for Structural Determination

Infrared Spectroscopy

Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes)

Mass Spectroscopy (structural identification)

1H NMR Spectroscopy

13C NMR Spectroscopy

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Environmental Chemistry


Carbon Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion

Photochemical Smog

Greenhouse Gases and Effect

Acid Rain


Analysis of Water

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Industrial Chemistry

Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry Principles

Atom Economy (Atom Utilisation)

Industrial Chemistry Case Studies

Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)

Uses and Production of Sulfuric Acid (Contact Process)

Uses and Production of Sodium Carbonate (Solvay Process)

Uses and Production of Sodium Hydroxide (Electrolytic Processes)

▸ Petrochemical Industry:

▹ case study: Production of Ethene (ethylene)


Polymers and Polymerization

Addition Polymerisation

Production of Polyethene (polyethylene)

Production of Polvinyl chloride (PVC)



Polypropene (polypropylene)

Condensation Polymerisation


Production of Polyamides (nylons)

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Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology Introduction

Graphene and Fullerenes

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Medicinal Chemistry (Drugs and Pharmaceuticals)

Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)

Paracetamol (acetaminophen)


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Reactions Involving Metals

Metal + Water

Metal + Non-oxidizing Acid

Metal + Oxygen

Activity Series

Extracting Metals

Metal Extraction Concepts

Smelting Oxides

Carbon Reduction Method

Smelting Sulfides

Copper Sulfides

Electrolytic Extraction

Copper : Electrowinning

Aluminium Production : Hall-Heroult Cell

Sodium Production : Downs Cell

Refining Metals



Binary Alloys

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