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The links are arranged under the headings:

Introduction to Chemistry

Problem Solving Skills
          Problem Solving in Chemistry
Practical Skills
          Safety in the Laboratory

          Scientific Method


              Experimental Design

          Writing Laboratory Reports

              Plotting Points on a Graph

              Drawing the Line of Best Fit

              Predictions from Graphs (extrapolation & interpolation)

              Accuracy and Precision

              Experimental Errors

Maths for Chemistry Students
          Significant Figures

          Scientific (exponential) Notation

          Temperature Conversions

          Mass Conversions

          Volume Conversions

          Energy Conversions

          Density Calculations

Classification of Matter
          Pure Substances and Mixtures

          Elements and Compounds


          History of the Elements

          Metals and Non-Metals

Chemical Reactions
          Physical and Chemical Changes

          Types of Chemical Reactions

Chemical Formula
          Naming Ionic Compounds

          Writing Ionic Formula

          Name and Formula of Covalent Compounds

          Molecular Formula

          Empirical and Molecular Formula

              Empirical Formula Experiment: Magnesium Oxide

          2-Dimensional (full display) Structural Formula

          Condensed Structural Formula (semi-structural formula)

          Skeletal Formula

Chemical Equations
          Balancing Chemical Equations

          Writing Precipitation Reaction Equations

Stoichiometry (Chemical Calculations)
          Relative Molecular Mass (Formula Weight)

          Calculating Percentage (Percent) Composition

          Definitions of a Mole

              Mole-Number of Particle Calculations

              Mass-Mole Calculations

              Molar Gas Volume Calculations

          Molarity of Solutions

              Dilution Calculations

              Dilution Factor

          Reaction Calculations: Mass and Moles

          Limiting Reagents and Reactants in Excess



Organic (Carbon) Chemistry

      Nomenclature (Naming)
          Introduction to IUPAC Naming for Organic Compounds

          Introduction to Functional Groups

          Hydrocarbon Nomenclature

            Straight-Chain Alkanes

            Branched-Chain Alkanes

            Straight-Chain Alkenes

            Straight-Chain Alkynes

          Aldehyde Nomenclature

            Straight-Chain Alkanals

          Ketone Nomenclature

            Straight-Chain Alkanones

          Alcohol Nomenclature

            Straight-Chain Alkanols

            Branched-Chain Alkanols

            Straight-Chain Alkanediols

            Classification of Alkanols (alcohols)

          Haloalkane (alkyl halide) Nomenclature

            Straight-Chain Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

          Carboxylic acids Nomenclature

          Straight-Chain Alkanoic Acids

          Esters Nomenclature

          Simple Esters

          Amine Nomenclature

          Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamines

          Amide Nomenclature

          Straight-Chain Primary Alkanamides

          Structural (Constitutional) Isomers

            Structural Isomers of Alkanes

            Structural Isomers of Alkenes

            Structural Isomers of Haloalkanes

          Cis-Trans (Geometric Isomers)

            cis-trans (Geometric) Isomers of Alkenes

          Combustion of Hydrocarbons

          Halogenation of Hydrocarbons

          Hydrohalogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

          Hydration of Alkenes to Alkanols (alcohols)

          Oxidation of Alkenes

          Combustion of Alcohols (alkanols)

          Oxidation of Alkanols (alcohols)

          Dehydration of Alkanols (alcohols)

          Preparation and Naming of Esters (Esterification)

          Substitution Reactions of Haloalkanes (alkyl halides)

          Polymers and Polymerization

          Addition Polymerisation

              Polythene (polyethylene)

              Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)


          Condensation Polymerisation


              Polyamides (Nylons)

          Reaction Schemes for Organic Chemistry

      Properties and Uses


          Alkanols (alcohols)

          Carboxylic (alkanoic) Acids


          Ethene (ethylene)

      Aromatic Compounds
          Benzene Structure

Biochemistry (Biological Chemistry)


          Carbohydrates (sugars)

          Lipids (fats and oils)

          Amino Acids






          Reducing & Non-reducing Sugars


          Chemistry of Blood

Inorganic Chemistry (Chemistry of Elements other than Carbon)

Periodic Table
          History of the Periodic Table

          Introduction to the Modern Periodic Table

          s,p,d,f Blocks of the Periodic Table

          Trends in Electron Configuration

          Trends in Ionization Energy

          Trends in Atomic Radius

          Trends in Electronegativity

          Trends in Properties of Oxides

          Trends in Group 1 (IA)

          Trends in Group 2 (IIA)

          Trends in Group 17 (VIIA)

          Trends in Period 2

          Trends in Period 3

Transition Metal Chemistry
          Transition Metal Properties

          Ligands and Complex Ions

Solid-State Chemistry
          Silicates: Structure and Formula


Physical Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry
Atomic Structure
          Brief History of Atomic Theory

          Bohr Model of the Atom

          Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

          Electron Configuration

          Quantum Numbers

      Evidence for Electronic Configuration
          First Ionization Energy


              Mass Defect

              Isotope Stability (introduction)

              Nuclear Binding Energy

              Properties and Uses of Radiation and Isotopes

          Relative Atomic Mass

              Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes)

Nuclear Decay

          Nuclear Decay

          Half-Life Definitions and Calculations

Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

          Uses of Carbon-14 for Dating

          Uses of radioisotopes in Smoke Detectors

          Lewis Structures (electron dot diagrams)

          Coordinate Covalent Bonds (dative bonds)

          Shapes of Molecules (VSEPR)

          Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

          Molecule Polarity

          Intramolecular Forces

                Metallic Bonding

                Ionic Bonding

                Covalent Bonding

          Intermolecular Forces

                Melting and Boiling Point


Gas Laws
          Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Gas Volumes

          Avogadro's Principle

          Boyle's Law (Mariotte's Law)

          Charles' Law

          Combined Gas Equation

          Ideal Gas Law

          Kinetic Theory of Gases

          Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

          Graham's Laws of Effusion and Diffusion

          Henry's Laws (gas solubility)

Thermochemistry (Energy)

          Defining Enthalpy Change

          Energy Profiles (diagrams)

          Manipulating Enthalpy Change Terms

          Hess's Law (Additivity of Heats of Reaction)

          Heat (Enthalpy) of Formation and Reaction

          Bond Energy and Heat of Reaction

          Latent Heat (Enthalpy)

          Heat Capacity Calculations

          Heat (Enthalpy) of Combustion

      Reaction Calorimetry (solutions)

          Heat (Enthalpy) of Reaction

          Heat (Enthalpy) of Solution

          Heat (Enthalpy) of Neutralisation

      Calorimetry (electrical)



          Fuel Definitions


Chemical Kinetics
          Rate of Reaction

          Kinetic Energy (Maxwell-Boltzman) Distribution

          Using Rate Law

          Determining Rate Law


          Oxidation and Reduction Concepts

          Oxidation Numbers (States)

          Writing half-equations (for simple ions)

          Writing half-equations (for aqueous solutions)

          Redox Reaction Concepts

          Writing Redox Equations

          Eo: oxidation & reduction

          Eo: redox reactions

          Spontaneous vs Non-spontaneous Redox Reactions

          Electrolyte Strength

          Quantity of Electricity (charge) Calculations

          Electrical Energy Calculations


          Displacement Reactions (activity series)

          Voltaic (Galvanic) Cells

              Galvanic Cell Diagrams



                  Lead-Acid Batteries

              Fuel Cells

          Electrolytic Cell Concepts

              Electrolysis of Molten Salts

              Electrolysis of Aqueous Salt Solutions

              Electroplating Concepts

                  Faraday Laws of Electrolysis

      also see Metallurgy and Industrial Chemistry sections below

Advanced Electrochemistry

          Nernst Equation


          Equilibrium Concepts

          Le Chatelier's Principle

              Solubility & Le Chatelier's Principle

          Mass-Action Expression (Q)

          Law of Chemical Equilibrium

          Equilibrium Constants (K)

              R.I.C.E. (I.C.E.) Tables and K Calculations

          K and Extent of Reaction

          K and Temperature

          K and Reverse Reactions

          K and Stoichiometry

              Ion Product for Water (Kw)

              Acid Dissociation Constants (Ka)

              Base Dissociation Constants (Kb)

              Solubility Products (Ksp)

              KP and Kc

          Q vs K : predicting direction of reaction


          Chemistry of Blood

          Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)

          Manufacture and Uses of Sulfuric Acid

Acids and Bases
Acid and Base Concepts
          Properties of Acids and Bases

          Definitions and Properties of Acids and Bases

          pH Scale Concepts

              pH Calculations for acids

              [H+] Calculations for acids

          pOH Concepts

              pOH Calculations for bases

              [OH-] Calculations for bases

          Strength of Acids

              pH of Strong Acids

              Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Acids

              Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Acids

              pOH of Strong Acids

            Weak Acids (Ka)

          Strength of Bases

              pOH of Strong Bases

              Hydroxide Ion Concentration of Strong Bases

              pH of Strong Bases

              Hydrogen Ion Concentration of Strong Bases

          Weak Bases (Kb)

          Polyprotic Weak Acid Concepts

          Polyprotic Strong Acid Concepts

          Strength of Conjugate Acids and Bases

Acid and Base Reactions
          Neutralisation Reactions

              Acidic, Basic, Neutral Aqueous Solutions

              pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions

          Proton Transfer Reactions

          Buffer Concepts

         (see also Acid-Base Titrations, Volumetric Analysis, below)

      Concentration of Solutions

          Solutions Concepts


          Mass Fraction and Mass Percent (w/w)

          Weight/Volume Percentage (w/v)

          Parts per Million (ppm)

          Mole Fraction and Mole Percent


          Weight Ratio Percentage

      Properties of Solutions

      Colligative Properties

          Raoult's Law

          Freezing Point Depression & Boiling Point Elevation

          Osmotic Pressure

Surface Chemistry
          Surface Tension


          Capillary Action

          Soaps and Saponification

          Synthetic Detergents

Analytical Chemistry

Gas Tests
          Gas Preparation and Tests
Gravimetric Analysis
          Solubility Rules

          Precipitation Reaction Equations

          Solubility Products (Ksp)

          Gravimetric Analysis

Volumetric Analysis (Titrations)
          Standard Solutions

          Titration Techniques

    Acid - Base Titrations (direct titrations)

          Acid Base Titration Calculations

          Acid Base Titration Curves (graphs)

          Strong Monoprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations

          Strong Diprotic Acid - Strong Base Titration Curve Calculations

          Indicators for Acid Base Titrations

          Indicator End Point

          Acetic Acid Concentration in Vinegar by Direct Titration

    Back Titrations (indirect titrations)
          Back Titration Calculations
REDOX Titrations
          REDOX Titration Calculations

              Ethanol REDOX Titrations (Wine or Beer Analysis)

              Hypochlorite REDOX Titrations (Bleach Analysis)

Complexometric Titrations
    Total Hardness in Hard Water

    Calcium Ion Concentration in Hard Water

Instrumental Techniques
      Chromatography Overview

          Paper Chromatography

          Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

          Gas Chromatography (GC or GLC)

          High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)


      Spectroscopy Overview

          Flame Tests

          Emission (Atomic) Spectroscopy

          Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS)

          UV-Visible Spectroscopy

      Determination of Structure

          Infrared Spectroscopy

          Mass Spectroscopy (isotopes)

          Mass Spectroscopy (structural identification)

          1H NMR Spectroscopy

          13C NMR Spectroscopy

Environmental Chemistry

          Carbon Cycle

          Nitrogen Cycle

          Ozone Layer and Ozone Depletion

          Photochemical Smog

          Greenhouse Gases and Effect

          Acid Rain

          Analysis of Water

Industrial Chemistry

          Green Chemistry Principles

              Atom Economy (Atom Utilisation)

          Uses and Production of Ammonia (Haber Process)

          Uses and Production of Sulfuric Acid (Contact Process)

          Uses and Production of Sodium Carbonate (Solvay Process)

          Uses and Production of Sodium Hydroxide (Electrolytic Processes)

          Production of Ethene (ethylene)


          Polymers and Polymerization

          Addition Polymerisation

              Production of Polythene (polyethylene)

              Production of Polvinyl chloride (PVC)


          Condensation Polymerisation


              Production of Polyamides (nylons)


          Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology Introduction

          Graphene and Fullerenes

Medicinal Chemistry (Drugs and Pharmaceuticals)

          Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)

          Paracetamol (acetaminophen)



Reactions Involving Metals

          Metal + Water

          Metal + Non-oxidizing Acid

          Metal + Oxygen

Activity Series

Extracting Metals

Metal Extraction Concepts

    Smelting Oxides

        Carbon Reduction Method

    Smelting Sulfides

          Copper Sulfides

    Electrolytic Extraction

        Copper : Electrowinning

        Aluminium Production : Hall-Heroult Cell

        Sodium Production : Down's Cell

Refining Metals



    Binary Alloys

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